Dual boot for arduino

Hi all,

      I would like to introduce a new dualboot feature which can be an add-on to any existing arduino boards. The additional requirement is an external i2c eeprom with minimum size of the internal flash memory.

Here I modified the arduino bootloader and added additional functionality to backup and swap/restore between main flash memory and external backup eeprom which is now like a dualboot system. When the reset button in arudino is pressed, it enters to the bootloader mode. In my case, in bootloader it checks if the pins 10 and 11 are shorted while reset is invoked. If yes, the on board LED will glow for 1 second. If I remove the short between pin10 and 11 before the LED turns OFF (1 second TURNOFF timeout) it enters to dualboot mode and start swapping the main flash memory with external eeprom memory till "32KB - bootloader size". Now the existing flash binary is saved in external eeprom and previous binary is booted to the memory and it started executing. If we do the same operation again then it repeats the memory swap process and then previous application is again loaded or reverted back by creating a new backup of the existing application binary. So now we can maintain two codes in hardware and can be selected at any time.

If we are not doing the pin shorting (11 and 10) while hardware reset, it works like a normal arduino bootloader ie we can use an arduino IDE and load any sketch to it. (here I am selecting UNO even my board is mini pro 16). So it is again arduino compatible, obviously it should be right?!

Source code:

stm32f407 discovery board as a 100MHz FM transmitter using crystal feedback trick

Hi All,
     It's been a long time I haven't updated my blog coz it is hard to get some free time.  Anyways, I have a small hack to share now.

This is a very simple hack, the aim of this project is to transmit a song stored in STM32F407 flash memory over air by FM at 100MHz. At first you can have a look at the below video, a weird demo taken through my mobile phone. A fixed song is repeatedly transmitted from the stm32f407 discovery and it received on a mobile phone FM radio which is tuned at 100MHz.


How it works?

 A song + voice in wav format is saved in the flash memory from an offset after application code.
The *.wav can be directly dumped into the flash say from address 0x08005000 after renaming the file as *.bin.  This can be done directly by using ST-LINK utility in windows.

Now a small application code is written which starts at 0x08000000 which will read the song file at location 0x08005000 and throws the bytes to a PWM pin. This is done repeatedly in an infinite loop by a timer interrupt which is configured according to the sampling rate of song+voice wav. It can be done by DMA as well.

Now one more thing, the system clock is derived from 8MHz external crystal oscillator. Using the internal PLL, the system clock is set to 100MHz. Now the Master Clock Output option is enabled to toggle a pin (PA8) at 100MHz. So the carrier frequency for FM is ready!

Now if we run the code, the PWM pin (PE9) will get the song data in a pulse width modulated format. An RC filter is connected to this pin to demodulate it and thus we will get a decent analog song signal. If we connect a earphone or an amplifier over here, we should be able to hear the song.

 Fine, now how to transmit the song over air?

"Crystal feedback hack"

The trick over here is to disturb the crystal oscillator according to the song data. For this a 22K resistor is connected from the analog song signal to one of the crystal PIN. This setup will load the crystal circuitry according to the instantaneous amplitude of song signal. The frequency of the crystal is getting affected by this. In simple words, frequency modulation is happening over here. The song data is getting modulated over 8MHz.

We already set the MCO pin to toggle at 100MHz. Since the 100MHz is generated from the 8MHz crystal clock, the modulation will be observed in the 100MHz signal also (obviously magnified). The feedback resistor 22K is selected in such a way that it won't affect the working of the crystal circuitry and won't do over modulation. We can play with these values later.


Sorry, need to connect an antenna on pin PA8 to transmit the signal properly over air.
For time being, I connected a small female jumper wire which was more than enough for the demo.

Yes, now it is done. :)

I am getting range of around 30 meters with this simple 20 cm wire antenna. If we connect a proper quarter wave length wire/telescopic antenna, the range may increase beyond 100meters as well.

(In below photo you can see a 22K resistor connected from RC filter output to crystal pin.
That is the only external hardware modification for FM modulation)

RC filter:
 R = 100 ohms
 C = 0.1 uF

Feedback resistor:
  R = 22K. (Remove R24 and short those contacts and connect feedback resistor from filter output to R24 pin as in the above photo)

The same experiment can be done by connecting an SD card and can transmit the song over the air the same way...... May be we can use helix mp3 decoder to play mp3 files from sd card and can do the same crystal feedback hack...

Thanks to ST for providing a nice GUI tool called stm32CubeMX which generates the initialization code for clock, MCO settings, timer settings etc. This makes the development process much easier and no need to dig into the datasheet to configure the registers.

Source Code:

Hex file with audio:

  Try it under your own risk.
 This project is for educational purposes only and is not intended to interfere with any radio channels in restricted/commercial bands. Neither site nor I, am liable for careless actions. Please check for the legality before attempting the project within your area. Since the GPIO toggling is not sinusoidal, higher harmonics will be there in the transmitted signal, so be careful while trying it out as it can transmit harmonics in restricted band.

Happy Christmas and Happy New Year from Attiny13

While trying to open a chinese camera pen, unfortunately the PCB inside it got damaged. Few of the PCB traces got cut and it became useless. After few days, I removed an 8 pin IC with SO8 package from the PCB. I was curious to know what it is, so I googled the part number 25FW406A but I couldn't find any exact match. I found some part number similar to that and I concluded that it is an SPI flash. Later I got a datasheet from 'ON semiconductor' for a similar part -LE25U40CMD which is a 4M-bit SPI flash memory. I soldered the IC on a common board, powered it with 3.3v and interfaced it to a TI stellaris launchpad via SPI port. According to the datasheet the SPI port need to be initialized in mode 0 or 3. I tried few commands listed in the datasheet and got proper response from the chip, the CHIP ID doesn't matches but that is expected because it is not the same part. I wrote functions for erasing, reading and writing the flash memory and tested it successfully using the launchpad.
       Then I thought of making an audio player using this chip which can play 8K mono wav file for around 1 minute. I selected Attiny13 microcontroller for this project. It is always fun to do some thing with limited resources. Attiny13 MCU is having 1KB flash and 64 bytes RAM. Also it is an 8 pin MCU. There are 5 GPIOs. I don't want to change the reset pin as a GPIO because I want to program it via ISP while developing the firmware.


Hi all,
    I am so much excited to play with STM32F429I-DISCO board which is having an arm cortex m4 microcontroller with external RAM of 64Mbit. Also the most exciting part of the board is 2.4" QVGA TFT LCD and a gyro. The microcontroller is having 2MB and 256KB internal FLASH and RAM respectively.
          I am planning to do many things on this board, like 3gp/mp4 video player (if possible,but not sure), oscilloscope with external high speed ADC, interactive video games, simple voice recognition, 3D rendering and many more.  Also you can expect an article on how to develop applications on this board using completely free and open source tools (arm-none-eabi-xxx) in linux environment.
          Ordered the board from element14 and eagerly waiting for it. Stay tuned, will be updating with exciting projects on  STM32F429I-DISCO.



Stellaris launchpad based video player

 (stellaris launchpad playing 320x140 color video at 25 fps video)

 I am introducing my new mad project, a video player using stellaris launchpad and a 320x240 color lcd which I got from seeedstudio.  I tried the lcd shield by connecting on an arduino board and loaded some example codes for the arduino and it was working fine. I made a small video player few months ago using atmega32 and a 128x128 color lcd. This time my lcd resolution is larger. I want to make a better video player this time, so I selected a 32bit processor with more speed and ram, and I already have one arm cortex m4 based board, the texas instruments stellaris launchpad board which I bought for 4.9$ (limited time offer).
      I checked the arduino library code and written the lcd code for stellaris. To display stuff more faster I connected 8 bits of portb of stellaris to the 8 bit bus of lcd. At first I have some problems and later I found that few bits of portb is shorted with some other bits using zero ohm resistor r9 and r10, so I removed those. This is for msp430 launchpad compatibilit and it started to work.  I displayed some patterns on lcd and confirmed it is working.
  Later I configured uart in stellaris and streamed the image pixel data from pc to stellais and displayed it on the lcd. I used python image library in pc to convert image to 320x240 resolution and to get the pixel data from it.
    Later I configured sd card and used my own old library written for avr. Copied a single image data to sd card from sector zero and read the data and displayed on lcd. Then I wrote a python code in pc which invokes ffmpeg to obtain frames of a particular video. The same script reads all the image frames in the same order write the pixel data to a single file in 16bit format. Now I got a single uncompressed 'video' file!. I copied it to sd card, right now I am not following any filesystem, just writing the data from sector zero of sd card using  command 'sudo video_data >/dev/mmcblk0'.  (warning) The above command will overwrite the boot sector, root directory etc etc of existing file system in the card and there after the memory card will be shown as corrupted and will need to format it if you need to use it again in a PC/mobile phone. All data will be lost after this action.
        Now my aim is to display (stream) the data from the sd card on lcd. For this I am using multiple sector read command for the sd card and I am not even reading data to any buffer, instead I am directly reading from spi and writing to lcd. To get the best speed I optimized the HAL for SPI by sacrificing little bit on the readability of the code. Right now without audio I can achieve a speed of around 40 fps.
        Later I added audio to the video file, here I need to apply simple math. Using ffpmeg I extracted audio from the video in 8 bit wav format. On adding few video byte to video_file I added few audio bytes in between according to the video/audio bitrate ratio.

    Video frame rate = 25
    single video frame size = 320x140*2
    So total video bytes/second = 320x140*2*25 = 2240000
    Now  I selected audio byte rate as 22400 bytes/second.
    So video/audio = 100
    So accordingly I have to mix video and audio in the final uncompressed video file.

 I configured pwm in stelaris. Then copied the new generated uncompressed video file to sd card in the same manner I did earlier. Now in the display code I need to send the video bytes to lcd and audio byte to pwm, and it played video with sound and the quality was decent....Checkout the above video..

Resistive touch screen based wireless mouse

Hi, after a long time I am updating my blog again. I bought few nokia color LCDs and resistive touchpad last month, all are chinese clones and very cheap. Then I thought of doing some thing with the touchpad at first. My previous blogpost  was a TV remote based computer mouse. So I decided to make a similar stuff using the touchpad and bluetooth...
         I have used a cheap ATtiny13 (8pins) microcontroller which runs at internal 9.6MHz clock. It samples two channel analog voltage from the touchpad. One of the GPIO pin is configured as a software uart TX (bit banging) which will stream the mouse data at a baudrate of 115200 (may need to calibrate by changing OCR0A little bit up or down) to a PC via bluetooth (HC_05 bluetooth module). Apart from the mouse cursor movement, I have implemented left click, right click and wheels on the same touch screen.
       A python script running on the pc will accept the mouse data and it will process the data and apply a smoothing filter to make the cursor movement more efficient. Right now I did the code for linux but will be easily portable by small modification in the python code.
        The only demerit is that we cannot do any multi-touch since it is a resistive touchpad.... Also it is not so easy to use with naked finger, instead a stylus is recommended for smooth operation. But any way in the video demo you can see its working fine with my finger........(I am using my fingernail ;-) ).....
       The bottom left part of the touchpad is configured as left click, bottom right as right click and 1 thickness from the right is for mouse wheel ...

TV remote controlled computer mouse (an avr VUSB project)


    While laying in bed and watching movies on my laptop, I used to think if there is a remote control, it will be easy to pause, play, fwd, rev, adjust volume, play next etc etc without going near to the system. Then I planned to make a remote control. I don't have a bluetooth mouse. There are many options infront of me. We can do it easily using AVR microcontroller because there is a great VUSB project :-). Using vusb library, we can implement a low speed software usb port(slave) on avr microcontroller. In the vusb library, there is an example of hid-mouse implementation in which the author used the usb report descriptor same as that observed on a logitech usb mouse. I then added few more lines of code to it to make it receive and decode RC5 signal from a philips tv remote and to send the corresponding mouse events to the system using vusb library. I believe this is the best method because it doesn't require any special driver in pc since it is a HID device. Also it works on almost all avr microcontroller(tiny, mega etc) and it doesn't require any usb to serial converter or any special hardware and it is cheaper. Also it is platform independent. It will work similar to that of a usb mouse in windows, linux & mac . I used obdev's shared VID/PID pair(0x16c0/0x5dc). The same pair is used in usbasp, so the usbasp driver should be uninstalled(if it is installed earlier) and deleted otherwise it will not work in windows.
       Hope all avr lovers have heard the famous USBASP AVR ISP programmer and most of them might have used/still using this VUSB based stuff. I then made the circuit design almost similar to that of the usbasp so that any one can try this easily on the same USBASP hardware just by replacing the atmega8 with another atmega8 programmed with the new hex from this project. Also we need to connect a TSOP 1738 IR receiver module to the USBasp hardware and need to connect it's o/p to the INT1 pin of Atmega8. Finished! Hardware is ready... Now we can plug it to usbport and use it is as an RC5-Mouse. We need a philips TV remote with RC5 protocol to test it.
       RC5 decoding is done using external interrupt and a timer. The mouse data consist of 4 bytes. The first byte is the mouse button states, the next two are dx and dy (increment in x and y coordinate, signed value) and the last byte is the wheel displacement which is also signed. We need to set the vaues of this four byte structure and then need to call a vusb function  "usbSetInterrupt" to send the mouse data to system. There is a very good vusb tutorial at codeandlife.com. Also you can check out the vusb home page.

Usage & Features:
  • 8 directional navigation of mouse pointer. (remote buttons - 2,4,6,8, 1,3,7,9)
  • Accelerated mouse movement for intelligent fast movement. ie the mouse pointer speed increases on holding the above mentioned navigation keys.
  • For fine adjusting the position, release the key and press it again step by step.
  • Left click - button 5
  • Right click - button 0
  • Mouse wheel - volume- and volume+ button

Playing video on nokia color LCD just using an 8 bit AVR! [A mad Project ;) ]

A MaD PROjECt....;-)

I am introducing my new video player made using an atmega32 microcontroller and nokia color LCD. I got a 65K color LCD from an old nokia 6030 mobile phone.  I directly soldered 10 thin enamelled coper wire from the 0.5 cm square area of the thin flexible pcb of the LCD to a berg strip fixed on another board. For me it was the most difficult part of this project because I don't have any tiny tip soldering iron and an lcd connector (5x2) socket with me.
   After that I interfaced the lcd with atmega32 via SPI. Then initialized the lcd and displayed some color patterns and confirmed the LCD is working.
    Now my next step is to display a still image on the LCD. I used python image library to extract pixel information from any image file (jpeg, png etc) and I streamed it to avr via uart using pyserial and displayed the image successfully on the LCD with 16bit color depth. 
    After that I used an SD card to store the converted pixel information (132x132*2) bytes/picture. Then I interfaced the SD card with same SPI of atmega32 and displayed the image stored on it. I used FAT16 filesystem. The sd card part is not a problem for me because I have already done more projects on SD/MMC cards and I copied my previous code for that. 
    So after displaying the still image, I thought of making a slide show on the lcd. For that I wrote a python script to convert all images in a folder (on my pc) to a 132x132x2 byte files which is nothing but the uncompressed pixel information stored as new files. Then I copied all these converted files to SD card (file.lcd) and displayed them as an image slide show with 1 second time gap between each image.
    Since I successfully did the image slide show, then suddenly the idea of making a video player came to my mind. Because video is nothing but a slide show at high frame rate. 
   Then I used ffmpeg to convert a sample video to frames at 15 frames/second & 132x65 resolution. Then I used my python script to convert each still images to pixel information at 16 bit/pixel. Here instead of making small small files, I just collected all the picture information of adjacent frames into a single file and named  as my_video.lcd. Then I copied that file to memory card and modified the avr program to display it on the LCD. It access the FAT16 file system, then search for *.lcd files and if found, it returns the starting cluster address of that file and then stream that cluster to the LCD very fast. NOW VIDEO IS PLAYED (without audio)!!!!! ....Almost half of the project is finished....
Next half: (audio mixing)
       I played 15 fps 16bit/pixel on the lcd. Now comes the next headache. Video should have audio. :-(.... Then I started thinking how to include audio. I used ffmpeg(in pc) to extract audio from the video file to 8 bit mono wav. Since wav is uncompressed audio, it is easy to handle it using a microcontroller with hardware PWM. Then I modified my python script. I just opened the wav file and discarded the first 44 bytes (wav header) and then after that, I read the audio sample byte by byte and injected it in between the video information after some calculations(see the math below) related to the bit rate of both audio and video to decide the mixing ratio.
         For the perfect audio video synchronization, I implemented an error correction code in the converter, which monitors the synchronization error while mixing the audio-video bytes and when the error reaches a threshold value equivalent, it writes a dummy audio sample instead of real audio sample and thus prevents the accumulation of error and thus perfect audio video synchronization is achieved for hours of continuous video playback..
  Now in avr, i need to extract the audio and video and need to send the audio to an audio circular buffer which will be send to PWM using a timer interrupt and video directly to LCD. If any single byte mismatch occurred between the video and audio byte, every thing will get collapsed. I then modified the avr code to do as above and finally I played video with audio! :-) 

Getting started with ARM Cortex-M3 on GNU/Linux

STM32VLDiscovery is one of the three[2][3] cheap ARM Cortex-M3/M4 boards from ST. It contains an STM32F100RB microcontroller and an on-board ST-Link. Also it is designed to be powered with usb or external 3.3v or 5v. It seems to be a nice board for beginners. We can easily get started with stm32 on linux.

We need to build the toolchain for the bare metal arm ie the binary is to be executed on the arm without any linux/os. Summon-arm-toolchain is a shell script which will download the source of bintutils, gcc/gdb and two or three other packages (newlib, openocd and libopencm3) and compiles them (after applying some patches) to get executables for a "bare-metal" arm toolchain. After cloning the git repo, we need to read the README file, it says we need to install some essential packages before running the shell script. After that we just need to run the sheel "./summon-arm-toolchain" and it will do the remaining job. Finally we will get a new folder ~/sat in which we could see the library files and binary of arm-non-eabi-gcc and and many other required tools.
   Now we need a program to burn the binary to the hardware. For that we can use stlink. A simple make will generate the st-flash program...

two servo walking robot using TI launchpad

       Hi, I bought two small servo motors last month. I was thinking what I can do with this two servo, since it is only two in number. Then I asked this to my friend Achu Wilson and he suggested me to try a four legged two servo walker and he shown a youtube video in which some one demonstrating it. Then I also got interested to make some thing similar to that. Then I started designing my walker using two servo and msp430 launchpad and at last it turned out even better than I thought it would.(See the video above). The servo controlling techinque used here is a little bit different compared to the usual hardware PWM, I used a circular buffer to save each servo position and o/p pin details. Only a timer compare interrupt is used for this. This is a common technique used for controlling more servo using a cheap microcontroller with limited hardware Timer-pwm modules. Using this software pwm(not a perfect pwm, but still it will work in the servo motors) techinque, I can control more servo motors like 4,5, 6 etc etc depending on the number of I/O pins. 
     Coding for this msp430 launchpad is done in asm just because I also want to refresh the msp430 assembly language programming. I used naken430asm assembler in linux for the purpose.


Implementing Discrete Fourier Transform in Atmega32 to make an audio spectrum analyzer

"All waveforms, no matter what you scribble or observe in the universe, are actually just the sum of simple sinusoids of different frequencies."

I am just refreshing the basics of fourier transform. I am not an expert. Now I did a small audio spectrum analyzer(0 - 10KHz) on a 16x2 character lcd using an atmega32 microcontroller. Since I am refreshing from the basics, so I started with simple DFT. Also, I believe I should learn to walk before running. So I am not straight away going towads the FFT, which is nothing but the fastest and a bit complicated algorithm to find DFT.(I will try it later, as soon as possible)
        DFT is too slow compared to FFT. My lcd spectum analyzer doesn't need a great speed like that of an FFT, now if it is capable of providing a speed of around 30 frame/second, then it is more than enough for visualizing the audio spectrum on an LCD. But any way, in my case I can roughly achieve around 100 frames/second(any way it is too high refresh rate for a 16x2 lcd, not recommended also :-)). My audio sampling rate is 20KHz for 32 point DFT. Since the transform result is symmetric, I need to use only the first half, ie the first 16 results. So, it means, it can display upto 10KHz spectrum. So the resolution is 10KHz/16 = 625Hz.
         I have tried to improve the speed of DFT computation. If it is an N point DFT, it needs to find (N^2)/2 sin and cos values. For a 32 point DFT, it needs to find 512 sine and cosine. Before finding the sine and cosine, we need to find the angle(degree) which takes some processor time, so I implemented a lookup table for that. Next two tables are for sine and cosine. I didn't used any float or double since it takes more processing time in 8 bit avr, instead I implemented the sine and cosine lookups as 16bit intiger, by multiplying the real sine and cosine values by 10000. Then after finding the transform, finally I need to divide each result by 10000. This eliminates the need of using float or double and makes it more faster. Now I can calculate 120  32-point DFT operation/sec which is more than enough for my small spectrum analyzer.

Generating AUDIO ECHO using Atmega32 microcontroller

(video demo of echo generation using atmega32)
While I was studying at 10th standard, I used to play with small electronic circuits mostly based on transistor bc547 - bc557 pair. At that time, I just asked myself, I can amplify audio signals using few transistor combinations, but how can I make an echo effect which I used to hear in almost all loudspeaker announcements? I can't imagine what I can do with few transistors and resistors to make such an effect! I have no answer at that time because it was beyond my limitation..
  But now I can do this very easily by a simple digital signal processing using a microcontroller. It's concept is very simple, ie we need to apply a proper delayed feedback in digital samples with in a circular buffer. I did this using an atmega32 microcontroller and it worked fine. This is simple but really an interesting project. Not only an echo, but we can do a lot of fun with this type of small DSP experiments if we have considerably large RAM in the mcu...

An attempt to mount an SD/MMC connected at parallel port of PC (a linux device driver)


Hi, for the last few days, I was engaged on a mad project, ie I was trying to access as SD card directly via parallel port of my desktop PC with linux. At first, I successfully did the SD/MMC initialization and tested it by reading and writing few sectors. Later I got a simple demo block driver code (kernel module) from net. Then I modified it and used my SD card code along with it and made a driver for the parallel port - SD/MMC card. Then after connecting the card to parallel port and inserting the module, a new device file is generated (/dev/sbd). After that I successfully mounted it and accessed it similar to that of a usb pendrive or any other external memory device. I have tested it with 64MB MMC, 512MB SD and a 1GB MMC and all worked fine.. But the only drawback is the speed of data transfer is around 200kbps only..:-( It takes 1 minute for transferring 1.5MB file to or from the card. Also the entire system may get hanged while the data is transferring...
But any way, it worked, that's enough for me..... :-)

Running PYTHON (pymite-09) on an Arduino MEGA 2560

Hi, I got a new toy from farnell. It is an Arduino mega 2560 board


Now it is the first time I am using an arduino board. Arduino mega 2560 is really a great product. The chip got a flash of 256KB, RAM of 8KB and EEPROM of 4KB. Also, the data sheet of Atmega2560 says that we can extend the RAM (by external) upto 64KB. Another most important feature of this stuff is that it have 54 Digital I/O pins (of which 14 provide PWM output). It is clocked with a 16MHz crystal osc. Also the board contains another atmega16 (just above the crystal) which is pre-programmed as a USB to UART converter which enables a serial communitation between the atmega2560 and  PC via USB. The product is shipped with a bootloader inside which make it easy to program it via the same USB-UART channel. So the channel got two functions, ie programming the chip and serial communication with PC. From the arduino home page we can download the arduino IDE for appropriate OS.
      I heard arduino makes people lazy. ;-) But now I understood it is true. Because it is so easy to program an arduino using the arduino IDE. It have an arduino language (it is c++) with a great library functions those are very much user friendly and I heard people saying, "if it is arduino, any one can program it". Now I believe statement is almost right because in arduino IDE, we doesn't need to know any thing about the processor, it's registers and even its real port address also... Every thing is grouped and numbered in the board not according to the real PORTA, PORTB etc but according to it's functioning like PWM, ANALOG, DIGITAL, COMMUNICATION etc.
The arduino IDE got a lot of working examples, what we need to do is, we need to select the board first and then set the serial port and later we can open any example and then simply press 'upload'. It is ready!!!!!!!! ;-)
So no need to explain it more because it is so simple..

Running Python (pymite) on Arduino mega 2560
Appart from the arduino IDE, I would like to use the board seperately to try assembly programming and the normal C programming which I normally used to do using avr-gcc. 1 year ago I heard some one ported python for 8 bit devices but I couldn't use it since I didn't have a chip with enough RAM and flash. But since now I have this arduino mega 2560, I just downloaded pymite (p14p) and I could see a port for arduino mega there. It is nothing but the same "python" programming language written for microcontrollers. It have many limitations but still its interesting to see the python running on this 8 bit chip. I just build it for arduino mega 2560 and was successful (a small trouble was there in building, but any way it's okay).

Drawing geometric figures on a PAL TV using ATmega32 (128x64 resolution)

Photos of my TV screen:

    I am interested to draw lines, square, rectangle, circle etc on my TV screen. At first I was confused where to start. While thinking about it, a pencil and an eraser came to my mind. If we have a good pencil, eraser and a paper, then we can draw on it according to our own logic. If we use the pencil with compass and scale, we can draw circle, line, box etc on the paper. This is the basic idea I implemented in this small hobby project.

AVR based monochrome signal generation for a PAL TV

       I have learned some thing about TV in one of my B.tech semester but I forgot most of them. Now I refreshed a few basics and tried to implement a monochrome PAL TV signal generator using an AVR micrcontroller. I was using PIC earlier but later I jumped to AVR because I loves the USBASP programmer, the free avr-gcc compiler and the user friendly architecture of AVR microcontroller .Also at any time, if I feel little bit lazy, they I can try arduino also..;-)